Tuesday, March 31, 2009

April 1 Conficker Virus

Despite security Relevant Products/Services analysts insisting that April 1 is only a red herring, the Conficker malware Relevant Products/Services hype keeps growing as April Fools' Day approaches. Indeed, the doom and gloom is persisting even as security researchers offer a voice of reason.

The worm first appeared in late November, exploiting a vulnerability in Microsoft Relevant Products/Services Windows to spread unhindered on local area networks. Its goal is to install rogue software on infected computers. Microsoft issued a patch for the vulnerability, but users that haven't installed it are open for infection as the worm spreads through portable USB flash drives.

As the speculation grows around Conficker, also known as the Downadup worm, Symantec and its Conficker Working Group partners continue researching the possibilities of the April 1 fallout from a worm that wreaked havoc on millions of computers earlier this year. So far, Symantec has determined three facts that it is sharing.

Symantec Sets the Record Straight

First, Symantec has determined that on April 1, W32.Downadup.C, the most recent variant of the malware also known as Conficker, will begin to use a new algorithm to determine what domains to contact. No other actions have been identified to take place on April 1.

Second, Symantec said it's possible that systems infected with W32.Downadup.C will be updated with a newer version of the malware on April 1 by contacting domains on the new domain list. However, the security company noted, these systems could be updated on any date before or after April 1, as well by using the peer-to-peer updating method found in W32.Downadup.C.

Third, Symantec said, the public should not be alarmed. However, as always, computer users should exercise caution and implement security best practices into their daily computing routines.

The worm certainly is an issue of concern, but the probability of a major Downadup-related cyber event on April 1 is not likely, according to Vincent Weafer, vice president of Symantec Security Response.

"In reality, the author or authors of Downadup probably didn't intend for this malware to get as much attention as it has. Most malware these days is designed to be used for some type of criminal monetary gain, and conducting such criminal acts typically requires stealth measures to be successful," Weafer said. "As such, this makes the odds that a major event will take place on April 1 even less likely, since there is so much attention being paid to that day."

What Should We Expect?

McAfee said we don't know the intent of the authors of the Conficker worm, but one thing is certain: They have consistently improved the worm by adding new functionality and anti-debugging tricks with every released variant.

"In order to resist the Conficker cabal initiative, which recently blocked domain registrations associated with previous Conficker A and B variants, the worm authors upped the randomly generated domain count from 250 to 50,000," said Vinoo Thomas, a security researcher at McAfee. "The intent behind generating and attempting to contact so many domains is to make it extremely difficult for security researchers to monitor sites that could potentially host a payload for the Conficker worm to download and execute."

Security firms advise home users to make sure their security software is up to date with the latest antivirus Relevant Products/Services signatures and to enable their systems' automatic security updates. On the enterprise Relevant Products/Services front, Symantec recommends that companies continue to deploy all critical security patches, ensure their security software is up to date, clean any systems that are infected with any version of Downadup using the available removal tools and guidance provided, and evaluate additional security best practices in accordance with their organizations' policies and procedures.

Source: newsfactor.com

Sunday, March 29, 2009

Tips to recover scratched CD/DVDs

Don't you feel like crying every time you add another disc to your pile of scratched discs. Trashing that disc which contained your favorite songs, pics, files, games or videos is not easy.

Read-on, if you find yourself wishing for a miracle every time your favorite CD is scratched:

Home Remedy :
Here's an easy home remedy, which might give you the desired results. Rub a small amount of toothpaste on the scratch and polish the CD with a soft cloth and any petroleum-based polishing solution (like clear shoe polish). Squirt a drop of Brasso and wipe it with a clean cloth.

Quickly Search for Files

To quickly open up the Find all Files window
Press F3
Press Windows Key + F (Contributed by M. Ramesh, eswarams@gmail.com)

To copy a file with a Mouse/Keyboard combo

Drag the file while holding down the CTRL key - A + will appear on the icon
To move a file with a Mouse/Keyboard combo
Drag file while holding down SHIFT key - Nothing appears on the icon
If moving a icon with the mouse and an arrow appears, it will create a shortcut.
You can press shift or ctrl at anytime during the drag and it will change this little part of the icon.

Explorer Shortcut Keys

F4 - Displays the Combo Box

F5 - Refresh the display
Ctrl+Z - Undo last action
Backspace - Go up one directory

Key stroking is faster than mouse moving

In desktop you can press "m", "My Briefcase is highlighted, press "enter" will open this applet.
If you do not press "enter",
The next "m" key stroke will highlight "My Computer".
"Ctrl"-"Esc", press "P" for Programs, "enter","M""enter", you get to the first program or folder
that starts with "M"
Other applets will also be opened the same way.

Resizing and Moving a Window

To Resize or Move a window:
Press Alt-Space
Press the S key - To Resize
Press the M key - To Move
You can now use the arrow keys to resize or move the window

Bringing up the Properties Window

While holding the ALT key double click on an icon to bring up the properties.

Internet Explorer Shortcuts

Here are a few IE keyboard shortcuts:Go ‘Back’ to the previous page Alt+Left Arrow
Go ‘Forward’ to the next page Alt+Right Arrow
Add to Favorites on the current web page Ctrl+D
Open the History folder Ctrl+H
Open the Organize Favorites window Ctrl+B
Lets you open a new web page Ctrl+L
Open a new browser window Ctrl+N
Reload the current page Ctrl+R
Close the active Internet Explorer window Ctrl+W

Remapping the Keyboard

You can download Keyboard Remap (20 K) from Microsoft to reassign you keystrokes.
With this you can also assign a key to function like the Windows key on the Microsoft keyboards.

Quickly Starting Explorer

You can quickly start an explorer session by holding down the Windows key on a Microsoft Keyboard and pressing the E.key

Accessing Programs from the Start Button

To access your programs more quickly from your start button, with out aid of a mouse, hit ctrl+esc to open your start menu.
Then, type the letter for the directory you are looking for.
For example, to access the ever popular game of solitaire, CTRL+ESC, then "P" for programs, "A"
for accessories, "G" for games, then "S" for Solitaire.
If there is more than one entry for the letter, keep hitting the letter until you reach your desired location. Then, hit enter.

Duplicating the Right Mouse Click

Pressing the Shift-F10 key will be the same as clicking the right-mouse button.

Shortcut to System Properties

To access the System Properties screen quickly, simply hold down the ALT key while double
clicking on the My Computer icon.
While holding the windows key, press the Pause / Break key. This will open up the System Properties box.
From here you can easily get to the Device Manager

Minimizing All Windows

To minimize all windows:
Press Ctrl-ESC to bring up the Task Bar
Press Alt-M
This makes it a lot easier to minimize windows when all your open applications are full screen.


Press CTRL + Z to undo things like renaming a file in Explorer

Getting to My Computer from the Control Panel

If you're in Control Panel, hitting the Backspace key will switch you into the My Computer folder.

MS Natural Keyboard Shortcuts

Open the start menu
Display the pop-up menu for the selected object Win+F1
Start Explorer Win+E
Find Files or Folders Win+F
Find computer Ctrl+Win+F
Minimizes all windows Win+M
Undo Minimize All Shift+Win+M
Display Run Dialog box Win-R
Cycles through taskbar buttons Win+Tab
Displays System Properties Win+Break

Opening Up the Task Manager in NT 4

In Windows NT 4, to quickly bring up the task manager, press Ctrl-Shift-Esc

Fast Access to the Desktop

To get an Explorer view of the Desktop
Press Ctrl-Esc or click the Start button
Press R to go to Run. Note: If you are using a Win keyboard, you can get to this point by pressing Win+R
Type in a period

Front Page 2000 Shortcut Keys

Center a paragraph CTRL+E
Left align a paragraph CTRL+L
Right align a paragraph CTRL+R
Display HTML tags CTRL+ /
Apply the Heading 1 style (ect.) CTRL+ALT+1
Apply the Normal style CTRL+SHIFT+ N
Not listed in their help is:
Cycle through Normal / HTML / Preview Ctrl-PgUp/ Down
If you are at the last row in a table, the TAB key will add a new row below the current one.

Outlook 2000 Shortcut Keys

Go to the Inbox CTRL+SHIFT+I
Go to the Outbox CTRL+SHIFT+O
Check for New Mail F5 or CTRL+M
Start a New E-mail message CTRL+SHIFT+M
Open the address book CTRL+SHIFT+B
Start a New appointment CTRL+SHIFT+A
Start a New contact CTRL+SHIFT+C
Start a New meeting request CTRL+SHIFT+Q
Start a New a task CTRL+SHIFT+K
Make the Find a Contact box active F11
Open the Advanced Find dialog box CTRL+SHIFT+F
Mark an e-mail message as read CTRL+Q
Delete an e-mail message, contact, calendar item, or task CTRL+D

To Change The Startup And Logoff Screens

Startup Screen
Create a 320x400 bitmap in the root directory and name it LOGO.SYS
You can use LOGOW.SYS file in the Windows directory as a starter
Logoff Screens
There are several files called LOGOX.SYS
They are actually bitmaps 320x400 that just have a different extension
The hidden one in the root directory LOGO.SYS is the startup logo.
There are two files in the Windows directory.
LOGOW.SYS is the Wait while Shutting down ... screen
LOGOS.SYS is the You may now shut-off or Reboot screen
To edit them, rename them with a BMP extension and use your favorite graphic editor
You can edit these files or create you own
They just need to be the same size

To Remove The Network Neighborhood Icon

Start POLEDIT. It is on the CD in \Admin\Apptools\Poledit
Open Registry
Select LocalUser
Select Shell
Select Restrictions
Select Hide Network Neighborhood

Remove The Tildes In Short Filenames

Open Regedit
Go to Hkey_Local_Machine\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\FileSystem
Right Click on the Right pane
Select New / Hex
Add the value NameNumericTail= 0

To Change The My Computer Or Recycle Bin Icon

Open Regedit
Find My Computer or Recycle Bin
Tab to the left panel
Double click on the highlighted line
Double click on DefaultIcon in the left panel
Double click on DefaultIcon right panel
Type in the value for the new icon
Note: DLL files can be used. Specify the location of the new icon with the filename,#

To Speed Up The Start Menu

Start the REGEDIT program
Search for the word desktop
This should be in HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT / CLSID / {00021400...
Right Click on the right panel
Pick NEW / String Value.
Name it MenuShowDelay, all one word.
Select a value from 1-10, 1 being the fastest.
Restart Windows

Adding In Old Windows Groups

If you are setup to dual boot between your old Win 3.x and want to add in the old groups, just click on the *.GRP file in your old windows directory. The programs will be added to your list under Programs in the task bar.
Note: Any DLL's the programs require will need to be copied.

Turning Off Desktop Icons

If you want to turn off all the icons on your desktop:
Start the System Policy Editor
Select File / Open Registry
Select Local User
Select Shell / Restrictions
Select Hide all items on Desktop
All Icons will now be hidden.
Note: One side effect is the your CD will no longer automatically play when it is inserted.

Renaming The Recycle Bin

Start the Registry Editor

Type Ctrl-F to bring up the Find Menu
In the Find What box type Recycle
Double click on the Recycle Bin in the right pane
Type in the new name under Value Data
Restart Win95

Turn Off Window Animation

You can shut off the animation displayed when you minimize and maximize windows. This tip makes navigating Windows 95 a lot faster especially for those that don't have super fast video cards.
Open Regedit
Control panel
Right Mouse Click an empty space in the right panel.
Select new/string value.
Name the new value MinAnimate.
Doubleclick on the new string value (MinAnimate) and click on "Modify"
Enter a value of 0 for Off or 1 for On then hit
Close Regedit and all programs then reboot.

Restoring Corrupted Icons

If you use a graphic Card and you change the resolution, sometimes the icons are bad.
End Win95 and restart. When you see the starting message press F8 then type standard.
After this start of Win95 exit and restart.
Change back to your Resolution and restart.
The icons should be corrected.

Quick Access To Your Desktop

How do you access your darn desktop when you have a ton of applications open?
Well you could right click on the taskbar and do a minimize all, but that can be slow.
Open a browser window (double-click on "My Computer")
If there is no toolbar, select View from the menu and select Toolbar.
Then from the dropdown list-box in the toolbar select desktop.
Now minimize it and forget about it.
The next time you want to access your desktop just click the desktop window on the taskbar.
As long as you don't close the window when you shutdown, it will reopen when you start windows again.
Additional Note: You can also drag the Desktop folder to the start menu. Then you just press Ctrl-ESC and click on Desktop

Creating Document Scraps

If you are using Microsoft Word 7.0,
you can highlight a section of the document then drag and drop the highlighted area to your desktop. Windows will create a file for you with a name something like "Document Scrap From..." followed by the first few words you selected

Turning On Autoarrange For Folders

To make all folders keep AutoArrange turned on:
Open up an existing folder
Select View / Arrange
Arrange the Icons the way you would like, (e.g. Name, Size,etc.)
Select View / Arrange again
Select AutoArrange
Press the Ctrl-key while you close the window.
This folder should now have AutoArrange always selected.
This should allow you to create new folders that have AutoArrange selected by default.
You only need to specify by Name, Size, etc. if you want to change it from the default you set above.

Removing The Shortcut Icon Arrows

Open the Key LNKFILE
Delete the value IsShortcut
Open the next Key PIFFILE
Delete the value IsShortcut
Restart the Win95

Minimizing All Windows

To minimize all windows:
Press Ctrl-ESC ESC to bring up the Task Bar
Right Mouse Click on an open area of the Task Bar
Select Minimize all Windows
This makes it a lot easier to minimize windows when all your open applications are full screen.
With the Microsoft Keyboard, you can accomplish the same thing by pressing the Window-M key.

Create A Control Panel Menu Directly Below The Start Button

Click the Start Button once with your right mouse button. You should see a right-button menu (called a context menu because it offers different choices in different contexts).
You should see the items Open, Explore, and Find on the context menu. Click Explore with your left mouse button.
An Explorer file management window should open. A directory tree should appear in the left pane, with the right pane displaying the contents of the Start Menu folder.
Right-click any empty space within the right pane. A context menu should appear. Click New and then Folder.
The Explorer will create a highlighted icon called New Folder. Type in the following string, all on one line, replacing the words New Folder with this new line. You must type the period, the curly braces, all four hyphens, and the hexadecimal numbers exactly as shown. After the closing curly brace, press Enter.
Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D}
Other Folders can be added following the same instructions.
Dial-Up Networking.{992CFFA0-F557-101A-88EC-00DD010CCC48}
My Computer.{20D04FE0-3AEA-1069-A2D8-08002B30309D}
Recycle Bin.{645FF040-5081-101B-9F08-00AA002F954E}
Network Neighborhood.{208D2C60-3AEA-1069-A2D7-08002B30309D}

Adding Control Panel Icons To The Desktop

This is an easy one..
Simply open up the Control Panel.
Right Click and Drag the icon you want to your desktop or folder.
This will create a shortcut for that icon.
It could come in handy if there are always certain items you need to get to quickly.

Changing The Desktop And Explorer Folder Icons

The following steps will change the icon that is displayed as the default Folder icon.
Start the Registry Editor.
Search for "Shell Icons".
This will bring you to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE / SOFTWARE / Microsoft / Windows / CurrentVersion / explorer / Shell Icons.
Double-click on the one has the value name of "3" in the right pane.
Type in the new icon you want to use.
If you have a DLL file specified, you need to count for the location of the particular icon you want to use, starting at 0.
To reset the icon cache, use a program such as Tweak with comes with the PowerToys from Microsoft.
Note: I haven't experimented with too many of the other icon changes possible.

Getting Rid Of Click Here To Continue

Start the Registry Editor
Open HKEY_CURRENT_USER / Software / Microsoft / Windows / CurrentVersion / Policies / Explorer
Create a binary value and call it NoStartBanner
Double-click on it and give it a value of 01 00 00 00
You will need to repeat the same steps for HKEY_USERS / .Default / Software / Microsoft / Windows / CurrentVersion / Policies / Explorer

Removing Shortcut Arrows

One problem when removing shortcut arrows is that
if you delete a desktop item, it will remove it.
If it is a shortcut it will just remove the icon.
If it is not a shortcut, then it will remove the program.
Having the little icon arrow is one way to tell the difference

Adding The Desktop To Your Start Menu

Create a shortcut to the Explorer on your Desktop
Right click on the Start button
Choose Open
Go into the Programs Folder
Drag the Windows Explorer Icon on your Desktop using the RIGHT Mouse button
Choose copy here
Change the command line switch
Right click on the Shortcut you created
Choose Properties
Choose Shortcut
Type in following command line as target:
The last "," is vital!
If you want the two pane Explorer view ad the switch ,/e
Then rename the Shortcut to "Desktop" or whatever you choose and drag the icon onto the start button.

Updating The Desktop

If you want to update the desktop, for example after you've been changing the registry.
Right-Click anywhere on the desktop
Press F5

Changing Desktop Folders - With No Registry Changes

From the Explorer, create a folder somewhere OTHER than the desktop, and call it something like "Desktop Folders."
Move all your desktop folders into that folder.
Create shortcuts to all of those folders on your desktop.
Now, you are free to change the icons of each shortcut individually, to anything you like!

Correcting Corrupted Fonts

If you have a problem with your non-true type fonts, here's what you do:
Open the Control Panel
Double click on Fonts
Search for the "Monotype Sorts" font
Delete this Font

Moving and Resizing the Taskbar

You can move the taskbar by pointing on a corner panel and dragging it.
It is easier to move if you close all your windows first.
You can also resize it by moving the mouse to the edge and dragging it larger or smaller.

Changing Application Icons

To have a wider choice of application icons:
Right click on the icon shortcut
Chose Properties
Click on the Program tab
Chose Change icon
Click on Browse
Select Files of type All Files
Browse to the directory where your icon files are kept
You can even use some bitmap files for you icons

Closing Nested Folders

If you have several nested folders (folders within folders) and want to close them all, simply, hold the Shift key while closing the last folder This will close all previous ones as well.

More Removing Shortcut Arrows

'lnkfile', 'piffle' and 'internetshortcut' are the three places that I have seen the isshortcut arrow.
The best way to deal with this is to rename the 'isshortcut' to 'isshortcutbak' by right clicking on the 'isshortcut' then select rename and add 'bak' to the end.

How To Make The Task Bar Autohide

Click the right button on a blank area of the task bar
Select Properties
Select Autohide
Click OK
This will make the task bar slide off the screen when the cursor moves away from it,and it will slide back on when the cursor is moved near it again.
The same can be done for the MS Office task bar. The "sliding" effect is nice, and can free up some desktop space.

Adding Options To The Right-Click Of The Start Menu

To add an option to the Right-Click of the Start button:
Go to Control Panel, View, Options
Click on the File Types Tab
Scroll down until you see File Folder
Click on Edit
Click on New
Type in the Name you want to in the Action box
Type in the Application you want to use
A good option to add is an MS-DOS Prompt:
Try this c:\command.com /k cd %1
It also puts the shortcut on a regular folder.
This command will open a DOS window with that folder as the current directory.

Adding The Device Manager To Your Desktop

This allows you to quickly see all the devices attached to your computer.
I use it a lot to select Refresh when I add new external SCSI devices that were not powered up at startup. This way you do not need to restart the computer. To add the Device Manager Icon:
Right click on an open area of your desktop
Select New / Shortcut
Replace C:\WINDOWS with whatever directory you installed Windows95
Click on the Next box
At the next dialog box type in Device Manager
Click on the Finish when you are done
Note: Replacing the 1 with a 3 will bring up the Performance Status

Customizing The Start Button's Name And Icon

To change the name of the Start button:
Copy EXPLORER.EXE in your Windows directory to another directory
Start a hex editor (I've been using Diskedit from Norton)
Search for the string 53 00 74 00 61 00 72 00 74
This is the word Start with the letters separated by a null character
The section you are in should also have the words "There was an internal error..." also separated with the null character immediately following
Now just replace the Start letters with any of your choice (up to 5 characters only)
Exit Windows
Boot to DOS
Copy your new Explorer file over the original
To change the Start button icon:
Copy USER.EXE in your \WINDOWS\SYSTEM directory to another directory
Use an icon editor that can replace icons in executable files
Edit USER.EXE and replace the flag icons with the icon of your choice
Boot to DOS
Copy the new USER.EXE
The same can be done with NT 4.0, just the offset will be different but the location to just before "There was an internal error..." is the same.

Adding A Protected Briefcase

You can make your briefcase a shortcut on the on desktop so if you have multiple users on your PC and you don't want to have a password for your briefcase, you can at least protect it from inadvertent deletion by just making the briefcase a hidden file or in a different location other than \Windows\Desktop\My Briefcase, then send a copy or shortcut to the desktop.

Adding Drive To The Sendto List

I have recently found that if you want to send something from A: drive or from any where to any drive, you can just make a short cut of that drive in subdirectory SENDTO.
For example I have two hard drives, a Floppy Drive, and a CDROM
After I have make a copy of each of my drive I will be able to send a whole directory of E:\XXX from the CDROM drive to A: drive or any other drive that i have had made the short c t in the SENDTO subdir of WINDOWS.

Changing Or Removing The Start Menu Icons

Create a blank.ico file.
Put it in a directory (C:\Windows. Then double click on the Microangelo Engineer to run it.
When you get it up on the screen click on the "start" tab. You will see a list of all the icons in the start menu.
Highlight the first one (programs) and select "Change". It will bring up a dialog box - select "browse".
Go to the directory that contains the blank icon and select it. Hit OK until you get back to the main Engineer window and do all the rest exactly the same way.
When you have finished changing them all to the blank icon, Hit "Apply".
Hit your start button and look to see if all the icons are invisible. (They should be.)
Close out Micro Engineer and you're finished.

Removing The Inbox And Recycle Bin Icons From The Desktop

To remove the InBox from your desktop, without needing to run the Policy Editor:
Start Regedit
Go to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \ SOFTWARE \ Microsoft \ Windows \ CurrentVersion \ explorer \ Desktop \ NameSpace
Below that should be a few keys
Rename the key {00020D75-0000-0000-C000-000000000046}. I usually put another character before or after the curly braces.
Restart Windows and the InBox icon should be gone
You can do the same for any other items you don't to show such as the Recycle Bin or The Internet icons

Changing The Clock To 24-Hour Time

To change the display of the clock on the taskbar to 24-hour format:
Open the Control Panel
Double-click on the Regional Settings icon
Click on the Time tab
In the Time style section select H:mm:ss

Removing The Start Button

Click on the start menu button twice, so there is a dashed line around the button
Press Alt and the minus sign
Choose Close to make the start button disappear, or move to move it to the right!

Note: - You have to re-boot to get it back again, or:
Press Ctrl-Alt-Delete
Highlight Explorer
Click on the End Task button
Select No to doing a full shutdown
Wait a few seconds and the click on the End Task button

Easier User Interface

Add a menu item named "Open THIS folder!" to each of your cascading menus off of the Start menu.
This makes it easier to put items wherever you want them!
Go to Windows \ Start Menu \ Programs \ (etc.) in the Explorer
Start right click/dragging folders to the desktop, one by one.
Rename them and left click/drag them back to the same folder.
It takes a little while, but when you are finished you have a much easier interface to work with.

Adding Shortcuts To Desktop Without "Shortcut To" Text

Start Regedit
Go to:HKEY_USERS \ .Default \ Software \ Microsoft \ Windows \ CurrentVersion \ Explorer
Add binary value to Explorer:link="00,00,00,00"
Now You can make Shortcuts to desktop without Shortcut To" text.

Adding Anyfolder And Mail To Sendto

Previous examples of adding items to the SendTo usually require editing the Registry.
An easy way around this is to use the following methods.
To Add Anyfolder:
Open the Explorer
Go to \Windows\SendTo
Right click in the right hand panel
Select New / Text Document
Name it anything with a .otherfolder extension
When you want to send files to another folder:
Select The Files With Explorer
Right Click
Select Send to and the name you just created
You them have the option of copying or moving the file to a folder of your choice
To add Mail:
Open The Explorer
Go to \Windows\SendTo
Right click in the right hand panel
Select New / Text Document
Name it anything with a .MapiMail extension (ignore any warnings about the file extension)
When you want to Mail files as attachments:
Select The Files With Explorer
Right Click
Select Send to and the Mail name you just created
This allows you to easily mail multiple files

Changing Drive Icons

To change a drive's icon when you open My Computer
Create a file called AUTORUN.INF on the root of your hard drive
Enter the lines
ICON=Name of the ICON file
For the name of the icon file you can either specify the path and name (e.g.
a specific icon in a library (e.g. ICON=ICONFILE.DLL,2)

Repositioning A Background Bitmap

Normally, you only options for displaying a background bitmap are tiled, centered, or stretch to fit (with the Plus Pack).
You can edit the registry and have a third option which is to place the bitmap anywhere on your screen by specifying the X and Y coordinates.
Start Regedit
Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER / Control Panel / Desktop
Create new Strings called WallpaperOriginX and WallpaperOriginY
Give them values to position them around your desktop
The bitmap must be smaller than your desktop size

Aligning Drop-Down Menus To The Right

All dropdown menus can be aligned to the right.
This features becomes useful when trying to access
menus with submenus that appear directly to the right.
Open the Registory editor (e.g. regedit.exe)
Goto \\HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Desktop
Create a string entry called "MenuDropAlignment"
Set its value to 1
Note: Will not work under NT 4.0.

Moving The Start Button

How to move or close the start button!
Click on the Start button
Press the Esc key
Press the Alt and the - keys together
This will give you a menu, you can move or close
But if you move it you need to use the arrow keys and not the mouse.

Having Icons With No Name

Normally you have to have a name for an icon, just spaces are not allowed.
To create an icon with no name attached:
Make sure NumLock is on
Highlight the Icon you want to change
Right-Mouse click and select Rename
While holding down the Alt key, type 0160
Now the icon will have no name below it.
To Create Multiple Icons with No Name - From John R.
Follow directions detailed above
With the second icon simply add one space-bar character AFTER the 0160 number.
Each successive icon gets an additional space-bar character at the end (to prevent a duplicate naming error).

Adding Send To The Recycle Bin

That way you can just right click on a file you want to delete, and send it to the recycle bin without having to confirm each time.

Removing The Recycle Bin

To remove Recycle Bin from the desktop:
Find NAMESPACE key in left pane (HKEY_Local_Macine \ Software \ Microsoft \ Windows \ Current Version \ Explorer \ Desktop \ Namespace)
Expand NAMESPACE (click '+' box)
Delete the value RECYCLE BIN in right pane

Saturday, March 28, 2009

Customizing Individual Folder Icons

To change a folder's icon:
Open Notepad and enter two lines,
IconFile=file name,number
(e.g. IconFile=C:\Icon\CustomFolder.ico,0)
Save the file as DESKTOP.INI in the folder you wish to change.
Click Start -> Run, type in the command line,
ATTRIB +S "folder name"
(e.g. ATTRIB +S "C:\Custom Folder")
Open Explorer or My Computer and refresh (press F5 key).
This tip only work Windows 95/NT 4.0 + IE 4.0 with shell integration, or Windows 98/NT 5.0.

Removing The Inbox From The Desktop

A faster way to remove "Inbox" from the Deskop is to
Right mouse click on "Inbox"
Select delete
It will then tell you "you cannot store the inbox in the recycle bin. . .etc"
Click "Yes"
Wait 2 secs and it's gone.

Unable To Create Shortcuts On The Desktop

If you can't create shortcuts on your Desktop, you might have a corrupted registry.
Start Regedit
Go to HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\.lnk\ShellNew\Command
Make sure it has a value of:
RunDLL32 AppWiz.Cpl,NewLinkHere %1 if you don't have IE 4
or RunDLL32 AppWiz.Cpl,NewLinkHere %2 if you have IE 4.0 or IE 4.01

Increasing The Size Of The Scroll Bar

How to adjust the width of the scroll bar:
Select Properties
Select the Appearance tab
Go to the item list and find scrollbar.
Increasing the value in the Size field will increase the scrollbar width.

Getting Screen Shots

If you need to get a screen shot, and you do not have a screen capture program, try this:
Hit the Print Screen key. This copies a bitmap of the full screen into the Windows clipboard. Start up a graphics editor and paste it in.
Alt + Print Screen will capture only the active window.

Fixing Corrupted Desktop Icons

Easier way to reset icons then deleting SHELLICONCACHE.
There's no need to exit Win95 and delete the SHELLICONCACHE file in order to reset icons that you may have changed (like Network Neighborhood).
Go to Control Panel, Display, Appearance Tab.
Select Icon from the Item drop down list.
Change the Size up or down one and apply.
Change the Size back to your original and apply.
If your Start Menu is slow or your icons are black for some reason, it means your Shelliconcache file is
corrupt and should be deleted.
Delete the hidden file C:\WINDOWS\SHELLICONCACHE
It will be recreated the next time you start Win95

Full Window Drag (Without Plus!)

Start Regedit
Open HKEY_CURRENT_USER /ControlPanel /Desktop /DragFullWindows
On "DragFullWindows" properties change 0 to 1

Changing A Folder's Icon

To change the icon of a Folder on desktop:
Using the Explorer, move the folder from the Desktop directory to another directory on the hard drive
Right click on the new folder and select "Create Shortcut"
Move the shortcut to the Desktop
Right click and select a new icon

Easy Shortcuts On The Desktop

Here is an easy way to put shortcuts on the Desktop where they can easily be moved to other group icons.
Using the Explorer, create a SHORTCUT to the \Windows\Desktop directory in your \Windows\SEND TO directory.
Now whenever you want to make a shortcut and move it to the desktop:
Just make the shortcut you want using Explorer
Right click on that shortcut
In the pop up menu select the Send To and Desktop shortcut.

Making Desktop Changes Permanent

To make changes to the Desktop like window size, positon after rebooting:
Start Regedit
Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer
Create a New Binary Value
Name it NoSaveSettings
Give it a value of 01 00 00 00

Adding The Control Panel To The Start Menu

Open up the Explorer
Go to \WINDOWS\Start Menu
Right click in the right-hand panel
Add a new folder
Name it Control Panel.{21ec2020-3aea-1069-a2dd-08002b30309d}
This makes getting to the Control Panel items a little easier

Removing Shortcut Arrows

An easy way to remove those irritating arrows from your desktop shortcut icons and not change their properties
Right click the Desktop / Properties / Appearance tab
Select Item
Scroll for Icon
The default size is 32
Change this to 30
Clicking Apply

Make Icons 256 Color 16-Bit

Open the Registry
Hit Ctrl+F
Type Shell Icon BPP
When found, right click the Shell Icon BPP icon
Click Modify
Change the value from 4 to 16
Click Ok
Close the registry
Restart your computer

Increasing The Icon Cache

Run Regedit
Go to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\explorer
Create a new string called Max Cached Icons
Give it a value of 10000
This will increase response time in windows and give the Shellicon cache file more elbow room.

Having Your Favorites And Start Menus Sort Alphabetically

If your Start Menu Program or Favorites are not sorting alphabetically, it is easy to fix this:
Start Regedit
Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER/Software/Microsoft/Windows/CurrentVersion/Explorer/MenuOrder
Under here is are Favorites and Start Menu folders
In each there is a value called Order
Simply delete (or rename this) and restart Winodws
Your Favorites or Start Menus should now sort alphabetically

Creating Shutdown, Restart And Logoff Icons

To create the icons, create a shortcut on the desktop.
For Shutdown, the command is C:\WINDOWS\RUNDLL.EXE user.exe,exitwindows
For Restart, the command is C:\WINDOWS\RUNDLL.EXE user.exe,exitwindowsexec
For Logoff, the command is C:\WINDOWS\RUNDLL.EXE shell32.dll,SHExitWindowsEx 0

Creating 3D Window Effect

You can create a nice 3D effect for your windows
Start Regedit
Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER \ Control Panel \ Colors
Make sure the following setting are there:
ButtonHilight=128 128 128
ButtonShadow=255 255 255

Creating A New E-Mail Shortcut

To create a shortcut that will open your default e-mail program starting a new e-mail,
Right click on an open area of the desktop
Select New / Shortcut
For the Command Line, enter mailto:
For the title enter something like New E-Mail
When you click on this your default e-mail program should start with a new e-mail form.

Restoring A Lost Desktop

If you ever lose the Desktop but Explorer is still running with the Start Button, you can do this to bring back your Desktop in a Windows box.
Click Start
Click Run
Type a period " . "
Then press Enter

Using the Explorer's SEND TO Feature

When you right click on a file, SEND TO is one of the options.
To add other directories or programs, simply drag them to the SEND TO folder that is directly under the directory where you installed Win95.
This will allow you to quickly move files to commonly used areas.
For example, you can SEND TO applications like WinZip.

Changing the Sort order in Explorer

To change the sort order of the right window of MS Explorer
simply double click on the Name button underneath the toolbar
to change the sort order from ascending to descending, a single
click after that will toggle. The same works for Size, Type and Date Modified.

Starting the Explorer from the Current DOS Directory

To start Explorer from whatever subdirectory you are in when shelled out in DOS:
Type "Start .\"
The Explorer will start in that very same directory
"Start ..\" will start the Explorer one directory above the current one.
"Start \" will start the Explorer at the root of the drive.

Explorer Shortcut Keys

F4 - Displays the Combo Box
F5 - Refresh the display
Ctrl+G - Go to a specific directory
Ctrl+Z - Undo last action
Backspace - Go up one directory

Starting Explorer when opening a Folder

To have an Explorer window be the default when you open up a Folder:
Open up any folder.
Select View / Options
Select File Types
Go down to Folder
Click on Edit
Highlight Explore
Click on Set Default
Click on Close
Click on Close again
Now when you open a folder, you will get an Explorer window with the programs or shortcuts in the right panel and the regular explorer window in the left panel.

Expanding All Subfolders in Explorer

To quickly have Explorer expand all subfolders for a selected drive or folder, simply press the asterisk (*) key on the numeric keypad.

Easier File Copying with Explorer

One difference between Explorer and File Manager is that with File Manager
you could open up two windows to more easily copy files between drives.
To do the same thing with Explorer:
Close all running applications
Start two copies of Explorer
Press Ctrl-Esc to bring up the task bar
Right click on an open space
Select Tile Horizontally or Vertically depending on your preference
Your two Explorer sessions will now split the screen and you can copy between them by dragging files like before.

File Copying in Explorer Without Opening Two Sessions

There was a previous tip regarding opening two Explorer sessions, tiling them, and drag and dropping files
from one to the other.
An another way to copy files without needing to open a second Explorer session is to:
Highlight the file(s) you want to copy
Right click on the mouse
Select Copy
In Explorer, move to the target directory
Right click on the mouse
Select Paste
The files will now be copied

Undo Last Command in Explorer

When you use the Explorer to Copy, Move, Rename or Delete Files or Folders,
you can Undo your last action by pressing Ctrl-Z

Opening Explorer from My Computer

To open an explorer view of "My Computer", in "My Computer" or an Explorer window,
Select the View menu, Options.
Click the File Types Tab
Highlight the Folders entry
Click the Edit button
Highlight the action you wish (Open, Explore, Explore From Here)
Click the Set Default button.
This is much easier than editing the registry and easily changeable.

Opening Explorer and System Properties from My Computer

By holding Shift key and double-clicking My Computer you get an Explorer view of My Computer.
By holding down Alt and key and double-clicking My Computer you get the System Properties of Control Panel.

Starting Explorer with No Drives Expanded

Normally when you start the Explorer, it expands the folders on the root of the C: Drive.
For those computers with multiple hard drives plus CD ROM Drives, this might not always be what you
If you want it to start without expanding any drives, use the following switches:
EXPLORER /n, /e, /select, c:\
This will work with NT 4.0 as well

Opening a DOS Prompt in the Directory You Want

You can use the Explorer to easily open up a DOS window to a specific directory.
From Explorer Option Menu select File Types
Highlight the object for Folder - NOT File Folder
Click the Edit button
From the 'Edit File Type' panel click the 'New' button
Action is '&Goto DOS Prompt'
Application used is C:\windows\command.com /k cd %1
Select OK, then Close and Close.
Now from Explorer secondary (right) click the folder you want to go to in DOS
From the menu select 'GotDOS Prompt' (or hit G) and you are in that directory with a DOS windows
For Win NT 4.0 same tip, but substitute cmd.exe for command.com)

Printing a Directory from Explorer

To make a Print Directory option from a right-click in Explorer:
In Explorer, choose View / Options / File Types
Highlight Folder (not File Folder)
Click on the Edit button
Click on the New button
In the Action box, type &Print Dir
In the Application use to perform action box type C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND.COM /C DIR %1 /S /A /O:N >
You can use other switches for COMMAND.COM (COMMAND.COM /?) or DIR (DIR /? | MORE) to
customize to your preference.

Finding Files from Explorer

To find files from a particular directory:
Start the Explorer
Go to the directory you want to search
Press the F3 key
The Find File dialog box will come up with the initial directory being the one you highlighted

Added Non-Expanded Explorer when Right Clicking on a Folder

Adding a second Explorer to the menu that pops up when right clicking on any folder or the Start Button.
This is handy to be able to open Explorer non-expanded and also for being able to open a second Explorer
(non-expanded) while already in Explorer.
Open My Computer
Choose View-Options-File Types
Select the File Folder file type
Click Edit
Click OK and close all windows
Locate and expand DIRECTORY
Locate and expand SHELL
Locate and expand EXPLORER2
On the right window RIGHT CLICK on DEFAULT
Remove the space and %1 at the end of the line
Click OK and close REGEDIT
EXPLORER2 will show up and launch a non-expanded view of Explorer whenever you right-click on the
START BUTTON or any folder, even if you are already in Explorer.
The whole procedure can be done in REGEDIT, but this may be safer for users not experienced with

Inserting the Name of a File into a Document

When you need to insert the exact name of a file into a document:
Open the Explorer
Right click on the file you want to reference
Select Rename. You can either right click and select Rename or press the F2 key.
Instead of renaming it, right click on it again, and select Copy.
Then you can paste the exact file name into your document

Automatically Adjusting Right-Panel Column Widths

The column widths in the right hand panel of the Explorer might not be the correct sizes to display all the
file information.
To automatically adjust all the columns at once to show all the information,
Click somewhere on the right-hand panel
Simply press the Ctrl-+ key.
The Name, Size, Type and Modified columns will automatically adjust themselves to display all their
Note: The + is the one on the numeric keyboard

Explorer Session from the Start Menu

To open the Explorer with a session on the Start Menu,
you can just right click on the START button and choose EXPLORE
Most avid windowers know that "Start | Settings | Taskbar | Start Menu Programs | Advanced..."
will start an Explorer session focused on the Start Menu directory.
This allows you to easily and quickly add/modify your Start menu.
To immediately access this Explorer session from the Start menu itself,
Open Explorer and open the Windows directory.
Right-drag EXPLORER.EXE to the desktop, then select "Create shortcut here."
Open the properties to this shortcut, select the Shortcut tab and add the following switches to the commandline in Target: "/e,/root,c:\windows\Start Menu".
Double-click on the title of the shortcut and change it to "Configure Start Menu."
Open "Start | Settings | Taskbar | Start Menu Programs | Advanced..." and drag the shortcut just created
into the window on the right.
This will place a configuration item in the first level of the Start Menu.
These command-line options will allow a similar Explorer session to be started with any folder as the root.

Hiding the File Menu in the Explorer

To hide the File Menu in Explorer:
Start Regedit
Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer
Create a new Binary Value
Name it NoFileMenu
Give it a value of 01 00 00 00
Reboot the computer

Moving Up and Down Directory Levels

To go one directory deeper, key RIGHT ARROW
To back out one directory level, key LEFT ARROW

Changing the Explorer's Web View Background

If you use Web View for your Internet Explorer, you can change the background that appears.
Edit or recreate the file C:\Windows\Web\Wvleft.bmp
Make sure you keep the file dimensions the same 182x237 pixels

Speed Up Access to Data

[Windows XP]

Disk fragmentation slows the overall performance of your system. When files are fragmented, the computer must search the hard disk when the file is opened to piece it back together. The response time can be significantly longer.

Disk Defragmenter is a Windows utility that consolidates fragmented files and folders on your computer's hard disk so that each occupies a single space on the disk. With your files stored neatly end-to-end, without fragmentation, reading and writing to the disk speeds up.

When to Run Disk Defragmenter:

In addition to running Disk Defragmenter at regular intervals, optimally monthly, certain events warrant running the utility outside of the monthly rule of thumb.

You should run Disk Defragmenter under the following circumstances:

· You add a large number of files.

· Your free disk space nears 15 percent.

· You install new programs or a new version of Windows.

To use Disk Defragmenter:

1. Click Start>> All Programs>> Accessories>> System Tools>> Disk Defragmenter.

2. Click Analyze to start the Disk Defragmenter.

3. In the Disk Defragmenter dialog box, click the drives that you want to defragment, and then click the Analyze button.
After the disk is analyzed, a dialog box appears, letting you know whether you should defragment the analyzed drives.

Tip: You should analyze a volume before defragmenting it to get an estimate of how long the defragmentation process will take.

4. To defragment the selected drive or drives, click the Defragment button. After the defragmentation is complete, Disk Defragmenter displays the results.

5. To display detailed information about the defragmented disk or partition, click View Report.

6. To close the View Report dialog box, click Close.

7. To close the Disk Defragmenter utility, click the Close button on the title bar of the window.

Source: Microsoft

Can't Log On to Windows XP?

If that’s your only problem, then you probably have nothing to worry about. As long as you have your Windows XP CD, you can get back into your system using a simple but effective method made possible by a little known access hole in Windows XP.
This method is easy enough for newbies to follow – it doesn’t require using the Recovery Console or any complicated commands. And it’s free - you can easily change or wipe out your Administrator password for free during a Windows XP Repair.
Here’s how with a step-by-step description of the initial Repair process included for newbie’s.
1. Place your Windows XP CD in your cd-rom and start your computer (it’s assumed here that your XP CD is bootable – as it should be - and that you have your bios set to boot from CD)
2. Keep your eye on the screen messages for booting to your cd Typically, it will be “Press any key to boot from cd”
3. Once you get in, the first screen will indicate that Setup is inspecting your system and loading files.

4. When you get to the Welcome to Setup screen, press ENTER to Setup Windows now
5. The Licensing Agreement comes next - Press F8 to accept it.
6. The next screen is the Setup screen which gives you the option to do a Repair.

It should read something like “If one of the following Windows XP installations is damaged, Setup can try to repair it”
Use the up and down arrow keys to select your XP installation (if you only have one, it should already be selected) and press R to begin the Repair process.
7. Let the Repair run. Setup will now check your disks and then start copying files which can take several minutes.
8. Shortly after the Copying Files stage, you will be required to reboot. (this will happen automatically – you will see a progress bar stating “Your computer will reboot in 15 seconds”
9. During the reboot, do not make the mistake of “pressing any key” to boot from the CD again! Setup will resume automatically with the standard billboard screens and you will notice Installing Windows is highlighted.
10. Keep your eye on the lower left hand side of the screen and when you see the Installing Devices progress bar, press SHIFT + F10. This is the security hole! A command console will now open up giving you the potential for wide access to your system.
11. At the prompt, type NUSRMGR.CPL and press Enter. Voila! You have just gained graphical access to your User Accounts in the Control Panel.
12. Now simply pick the account you need to change and remove or change your password as you prefer. If you want to log on without having to enter your new password, you can type control userpasswords2 at the prompt and choose to log on without being asked for password. After you’ve made your changes close the windows, exit the command box and continue on with the Repair (have your Product key handy).
13. Once the Repair is done, you will be able to log on with your new password (or without a password if you chose not to use one or if you chose not to be asked for a password). Your programs and personalized settings should remain intact.
I tested the above on Windows XP Pro with and without SP1 and also used this method in a real situation where someone could not remember their password and it worked like a charm to fix the problem. This security hole allows access to more than just user accounts. You can also access the Registry and Policy Editor, for example. And its gui access with mouse control. Of course, a Product Key will be needed to continue with the Repair after making the changes, but for anyone intent on gaining access to your system, this would be no problem.
And in case you are wondering, NO, you cannot cancel install after making the changes and expect to logon with your new password.
Cancelling will just result in Setup resuming at bootup and your changes will be lost.
Ok, now that your logon problem is fixed, you should make a point to prevent it from ever happening again by creating a Password Reset Disk. This is a floppy disk you can use in the event you ever forget your log on password. It allows you to set a new password.
Here's how to create one if your computer is NOT on a domain:
  • Go to the Control Panel and open up User Accounts.
  • Choose your account (under Pick An Account to Change) and under Related Tasks, click "Prevent a forgotten password".
  • This will initiate a wizard.
  • Click Next and then insert a blank formatted floppy disk into your A: drive.
  • Click Next and enter your logon password in the password box.
  • Click Next to begin the creation of your Password disk.
  • Once completed, label and save the disk to a safe place
How to Log on to your PC Using Your Password Reset Disk
Start your computer and at the logon screen, click your user name and leave the password box blank or just type in anything. This will bring up a Logon Failure box and you will then see the option to use your Password Reset disk to create a new password. Click it which will initiate the Password Reset wizard. Insert your password reset disk into your floppy drive and follow the wizard which will let you choose a new password to use for your account.
Note: If your computer is part of a domain, the procedure for creating a password disk is different.

Saving Memory Space

All Windows Operating Systems have a folder on the hard drive where various applications temporary files are stored. On occasion, it is a good idea to relieve your hard drive of these unneeded files. There are a couple different ways you can find these files:
  1. Open Windows Explorer and in the Address field type: %temp% (including the percent signs) [Enter]. You will then be taken to that folder.
  2. Click Start>> Run, and type: %temp% [Enter]
Any of these temporary files that are found using the above methods are safe to delete.
Note: Sometimes the files are still in use, so deleting them works best immediately following a reboot

Top 5 Online Scams

Reports are that nearly 10 million Americans were the victims of online fraud during 2004. Thousands of con artists are constantly hunting for unsuspecting people online. Below, we have 5 of the most common scams that are currently circulating the Internet:
  1. Fraud:
    FBI's Internet Crime Complaint Center reports that Online Auction Fraud accounted for three quarters of 2004's complaints. Here is what usually happens in the Auction Fraud scam:
    The product that you've purchased is never what you actually bided on. It either is a cheap imitation or it just won't match at all. The descriptions of the product you are bidding on will usually be vague or completely fake. One buyer reports he purchased a portable DVD player for $100, but what he got instead was a Web address for a site where he could buy a player for a $200 discount.
  2. Phishing Scams:In this scam, you receive a very real looking e-mail that looks like it came from your bank, it usually warms you up by trying to warn you about identity theft and asking that you log in and verify your account information. The message says that if you don't take action immediately, your account will be terminated.
    When you click the supplied link, you will be taken to a site that is a replication of your banks site and has text boxes to enter in the required account information. Once you enter this information and click send, the scammers now have all the information that they need to steal your identity and start opening new credit accounts or what-ever else they would like to do with this information. In some instances, really smart phishers direct you to the genuine Web site, then pop up a window over the site that captures your personal information.
  3. Nigerian 419 Letter:
    Here, you receive an e-mail, usually written in ALL capital letters, that starts out something like this:
    The letter states that the scammers are seeking an accomplice who will transfer the funds into their account for a cut of the total--usually around 30 percent. You'll be asked to travel overseas to meet with the scammers and complete the necessary paperwork. But before the transaction can be finalized, you must pay thousands of dollars in "taxes," "attorney costs," "bribes," or other advance fees.
    Well, of course, there is no minister and no money. Victims who travel overseas could find themselves physically threatened and not allowed to leave until they pay a lot of money. Several victims have been reported killed or gone missing while chasing a 419 scheme.
    (FYI, "419" is named for the section of Nigeria 's penal code that the scam violates.)
  4. Postal Forwarding or Reshipping Scam:
    Remember the "work-at-home" envelope-stuffing scam that promised steady income for minimal labor, and a minimal fee to get started? Well, the loss from that scam is small compared to this clever postal forwarding/reshipping scam. This scam lures job seekers with an online ad looking for a "correspondence manager" promising big bucks for little or no work. An offshore corporation without a U.S. address or bank account needs someone to have goods sent to their address and reship them overseas. You may also be asked to accept wire transfers into your bank account, and then transfer the money to your new boss's account. Your reward is a percentage of the goods or amount transferred.
    What you are never told is that the products are purchased online using stolen credit cards and shipped to your address. You then reship them to the scammers who, in turn, fence them overseas. So, in reality, you are transferring stolen funds from one account to another. This dangerous situation usually ends with your bank account being cleaned out, or worse, a warrant for your arrest.
  5. "Congratulations, You've Won an Xbox":
    In this last one, you get an e-mail telling you that you are a big winner! It will tell you that you've won such products as; an Xbox or an IPod. All you need to do is visit a Web Site and provide your debit card number and PIN to cover "shipping and handling" costs.
    The item will never arrive. A few months later, unknown charges appear on your bank account.

Understanding Browser Error Messages

Understanding Browser Error Messages

As you browse the web, you will sooner or later come across one or more of the following error messages. It can be important for you to know why these errors appeared so that you can know how to fix the problem. However, some of the error messages are out of your control and this too is good to know so that you do not waste your time trying to fix something that cannot be fixed.

400: Bad request
For some reason, the page you are looking for cannot be found at the exact web address that you've typed into the address bar. That's not to say it doesn't exist, just that the domain name address may be spelt wrong, or is otherwise incorrect. Also the document (URL) may not exist, or perhaps, you're not authorized to view it.

Possible Solution:
Check the URL to make sure it is typed correctly. Internet addresses are case sensitive. For example, to reach this page;
http://www.thesysteminfo.com/support.htm is not the same as;
http://www.thesysteminfo.com/Support.htm. The browser will simply reject anything that is doesn't recognize, so it is important for you to be very accurate.

401: Unauthorized
The page you are looking for exists, but you aren't going to be shown it because you need authorisation. This could be just your computer location, which can be set by the server to accept specific requests from domain types or countries, or simply the lack of a password or username details. You may need to sign up as a member to gain access.

Possible Solution:
Very annoying when you know you should be allowed access, but is perhaps most likely because you typed in the password or username incorrectly. Try again, watching as you type in your details, check for accuracy and case sensitivity. If all else fails, contact the site webmaster for advice if you have these details available.

403: Forbidden or Page Unavailable
Again, you're not authorized to visit this site, either because of lack of a password or some other restriction.

Possible Solution:
Try again, checking carefully, or contact the site webmaster for advice if you have these details available.

404: Page Not Found
The Web page you are looking for can't be found by the server hosting that document. Perhaps, as previously, it may just be a mistyped URL. The page may no longer exist (renamed or moved) or could be having some sort of technical difficulty.

Possible Solution:
If the URL you typed was long, try retyping it, checking for errors. Many sites move things around or rename individual pages and you can often find what you are looking for by accessing the main page. For example: You are trying to access this link:
If it will not load, then try accessing the main page (http://www.zerone.info) and search the contained links.

500: Internal Error or Server Error
This is not one that you need to concern yourself about. The server that is hosting this web site has some sort of problem. Hard to say what it could be caused by, but if you check back in an hour or so, most likely it will be fixed.

501: Not Implemented
This error is a direct result of problems in the Web page's HTML (HyperText Markup Language) coding. It occurs mainly with Web pages that contain forms in which you type in requested information and send it to a third party.

Possible Solution:
Again, there is nothing that you can do about this one either. You could try contacting the webmaster to inform of this situation. This may expedite the web sites reactivation.

502: Bad Gateway
The server, while acting as a gateway or proxy, received an invalid response from the upstream server it accessed in attempting to fulfill the request. This may be a temporary or permanent condition, please try again at a later time.

503: Service Unavailable or Out of Resources
The Service is Temporarily Unavailable. The server is unable to service your request due to maintenance downtime, a temporary suspension or capacity problems, just too many users on the site at that time. Try again later.

Bad File Request
You are trying to request or use a page that contains a form which has a feature not supported by your browser.

Possible Solution:
You may want to look at the browser version that you are using and make sure that it is current.

Failed DNS Lookup
The Domain Name Server can't translate your domain request into a valid Internet address. Server may be busy or down, or incorrect URL was entered.

Possible Solution:
Check that the URL was typed in accurately and try again. If that doesn't work, try again at a later time.